Posts Tagged ‘management

11
Sep
11

Theory of Planned Behavior

Bagi seseorang yang bergerak di bidang pemasaran, tentu saja kita akan berusaha bagaimana produk kita bisa diterima oleh masyarakat, memiliki brand awareness yang kuat, produk yg sesuai kualitasnya dengan harga yang akan ditawarkan, saluran distribusi yang (semoga) tidak panjang serta (jangan lupa) pelayanan yang mengikutinya. Singkat kata, si pemasar harus mampu membuat bagaimana produk bisa terjual dan menguasai market share.

Tetapi, menjual sesuatu bukanlah hal yang mudah!

Ini bisa dilihat dari pendapat Seth Godin bahwa kamu harus bisa menawarkan sesuatu yang (seolah-olah) berbeda dari para pesaing. Kamu harus remarkable seperti Purple Cow untuk mendapatkan bukan hanya konsumen melainkan pelanggan.

Tentu saja, perilaku konsumen menjadi pertimbangan yang kuat. Kita (mungkin) dibuat untuk menuruti kehendak pembeli padahal kita hanya menawarkan sesuatu yang berbeda yang membuat orang tertarik.

Kalau pendeta saya bilang di khotbahnya, kita itu hanya beda selera. (And somehow I also have a same opinion).

Tentu saja, menuruti semua perilaku dan memanjakan pelanggan/konsumen sesuai selera tersebut harus tetap ada aturan mainnya. Karena seperti yang dikatakan teman saya, Agung Herutomo , dalam bukunya ‘Conquering 2.0’, konsumen sekarang itu (menurut interpretasi bebas saya) cerdas dan cerdik sehingga mereka tau apa yang mereka mau. Mereka juga sangat well-informed tentang apa yang akan mereka beli sehingga kalau dalam teori perilaku konsumen menurut buku karangan Grewal & Levy, Marketing, konsumen seperti ini memiliki internal locust of control yang sangat kuat. Mereka tau betul apa produk yang mereka beli dan informasi yang didapat akan memutuskan sesuatu sesuai keinginannya pribadi dan tidak gampang terpengaruh dari pihak luar dalam melakukan keputusan pembelian.

Karena alasan itu juga makanya pemasar harus bisa merencanakan perilaku konsumen mereka agar semua sesuai dengan kehendak pemasar.

Thanks to Ajzen dan Fishbein, mereka menemukan Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) yang membantu pemasar memprediksikan perilaku konsumen itu sebenarnya bisa direka.

TpB ini diformulasikan oleh Ajzen dan Fishbein pada tahun 1980an dimana awalnya model itu diformulasikan dalam bentuk Theory Reasoned Action (TRA). TRA mengemukakan bagaimana sikap menghasilkan harapan yang diinginkan konsumen ke dalam bentuk nilai-nilai. Lalu teori ini dikembangkan bagaimana perilaku muncul dibawah pengaruh tidak dapat sepenuhnya dilakukan dan konsumen masih mengandalkan rasa dalam membeli.

Akhirnya muncullah TpB dimana teori ini memprediksikan perilaku dapat diatur dan direncanakan. Ini dapat dilihat sesuai skema yang ada dibawah.

Lebih lanjut, TpB hanya menjawab beberapa sikap khusus konsumen pada pertanyaan seputar perilaku yang diharapkan.

Oleh karena itu, untuk mengukur sikap terhadap perilaku yang diharapkan, pemasar butuh menilai pandangan subyektif konsumen berdasarkan keyakinannya dan kepedulian mereka menjawab pertanyaan akan perilaku yang diharapkan.

Selain itu, kita juga harus melihat bagaimana pengendalian atas perilaku akan mempengaruhi maksud pembeli. Ini tentu saja melihat bagaimana kemampuan persepsi konsumen dalam melaksanakan perilaku yang dimaksud. Hal itu semua akan menghasilkan tujuan untuk membeli.

Aturan umumnya adalah semakin baik sikap atas nilai subyektif, dan semakin besar pengendalian rasa maka semakin kuat maksud konsumen melaksanakan pertanyaan perilaku.

TpB akan berguna sebagai informasi dalam pengembangan strategi komunikasi. Teori ini juga digunakan sebagai studi evaluasi.

Bisa dikatakan untuk pemasaran, salah satu fungsi TpB untuk melihat evaluasi atas marketing mix nya yang telah berjalan apakah sukses dan apakah pembentukan perilaku konsumen yang diinginkan sesuai dengan diharapkan.

01
Nov
10

Fair Trade Me

Fair Trade Me

When I said, ‘Fair Trade Me’, actually I want to make a mindset for everyone to be more aware about fair trade concept (not the label) in this world. What is the function of Fair Trade? What is the importance of Fair Trade? Why we should concern about Fair Trade? And could we put it as one of our lifestyle in the future?

Not being a hypocrite, I’m doing this article also to accomplish my desire about retail management in economic research for my job yet from sustainability in living perspective. Maybe you found that the economic or business concept will not walk harmoniously with sustainable development for people mindset about business players. Hold on! Don’t think too much about business people so reactively. For better explanation about it, you can visit my posterous at http://kikybrahmana.posterous.com .

When you said sustainability in living, so it is also PEOPLE responsibility about what should happen in this world for the best. So, it also means business people should be more concern and aware about sustainability in living. Before we are going to talk about Fair Trade (FT) furthermore, let’s we talk about sustainability in living briefly.

Sustainability in living is one of lifestyle that hopefully will happen in this world start from now and over and over again until this world gone (hopefully never happen). Sustainability in living is the concept that happened because of the people consciousness for earth’s changing. The first issue about sustainable development started in Rio de Janerio in 1992 and well-known as Agenda 21. Agenda 21 is the first summit for nations’ awareness about global warming and environmental issues. Based on United Nations (UN), Agenda 21 (also known as Rio Declaration) is a declaration on environment and development; and the statement of principles for sustainable management of forest where this first summit held in Rio de Janerio, Brasil, 3 to 14 June 1992 (http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/agenda21/ ). Furthermore this summit resulted the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) in December 1992 that will observe and be concerned about the progress of Sustainable Development in every aspect in this world.

Then, what is Sustainable Development?

Sustainable development was defined in the Brundtland Report by the world commission on the environment and development, in 1987, as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs”. Unfortunately, this definition remained unclear and the guidance for countries to develop sustainable development policies is very small. Then, in Rio Summit 1992, sustainable development definition has been developed until today.

Further, Garvare and Isaksson (2001) surmise best:

“Sustainable development is defined as the process to reach a steady state where both humanity and nature thrive”. (pp. 12)

 

Therefore there are 3 important aspects in sustainable development which are social, economic, and environmental aspects.

The Environmental Aspect:

The environmental aspect in sustainability development can be defined as preserving the natural resources of agriculture to meet the predictable needs of future generations as it maintains other eco- systems influenced by agricultural activities. It means that the current generation should be responsible in managing and protection the natural resources in order to avoid the damage of environment. Further, Fuch and Lorek (2004) stated that individuals must protect the environment for the sustainability of the planet. The current generation must manage their activities for protecting the environment.

 

The Economic Aspect:

The economic aspect of sustainable development can be defined as a wise, efficient and innovative act for the current and future demands in order to have an adequate, safe, and reliable supply of food and raw materials. Bower (1997) stated that sustainability development is consisting the economic development, which including the future generation welfare, that satisfies the issues for sustainability.

Economic approach which taken as policy must incorporate with the conservation of environment. Torjusen et al (2004: 24) states that organic food agriculture helps the protection of environment. It can be concluded that organic food can incorporate with the protection of environment.

The Social Aspect:

Sustainable development emphasizes the welfare of human being both the current generation and the future generation (Lin, 2006:5). It emphasizes that the chance to exploit the resources of future generation must be the same with the chance to use the resources of current generation. The importance of changing values in terms of a decreasing social relevance of meals, and increasing value of ecological aspects and consumption habits in terms of upbringing, health concern, and life style (Fuch and Lorek, 2004:12). It means that individual should not only consume the resource but also preserve the environment. Individuals and organization (business or non-profit) should realize and take responsibility for their activities to achieve a better life of community, and give the similar potential to the future generation.

 

 

Figure Scheme of sustainable development: at the confluence of three preoccupations UNESCO, 2001

So, from those explanation, we can assume that fair trade could be one of sustainable development solution. If you still ask why? Now it’s the best time to explore what is Fair Trade!

Fair trade according to my free translation (after read some sources) is a system in a company how its show their concern and awareness in equality rights and justice in trading that used in the markets to achieve sustainability in living. Mostly this fair trade issue will use in agriculture and manufactured company and influence about supply chain management. Fair trade will make a company to get their materials directly from supplier or small business company so they can cut some middlemen yet the company still gain their profits because their product’s price still comparable with the products from non-fair trade company.

Fair Trade movement is happening in middle or end of 2007. So, it’s still a young movement yet many events and agreements that already happened. So far, I only know one organization who can give fair trade certification called FTL (Fair Trade Label). But basically, every fair trade organizations will register into WFTO (World Fair Trade Organizations). These organizations are ensuring producers to get fair prices, services, and everything they need equally.

So, how about you? Are you already fair trade minded enough?

02
Aug
10

Production and Operations Management Subject Syllabus

Production and Operations Management Syllabus

Lecturer               : Ritzky Karina M.R. Brahmana SE., MA., MIRM

URL                        : https://talkingaboutlive.wordpress.com

Course Objective:

The basic purpose to study operations management especially for management course is giving some perspectives for students to understand how to create and operate productive systems for the satisfaction of human needs in products such as goods and or services. At this production and operations management subjects, students are going to study about operations management such as operations strategy (planning), process design, forecasting, inventory management, scheduling and quality management.

Those concepts will help students to find out the best alternatives what they should do in production and operations management in business actual. After completion this subject so the students should be able to:

–          Understand the dynamics of operations strategy and be able to implement it for a company

–          Understand about the concept of process design and how to apply it for a company

–          Have a good awareness about any obstacles that can be happened in the future and have a precisely analysis to forecast how to accomplish the goal with forecasting techniques

–          Understand and able to give recommendation about facility and design for production and operational layout.

–          Understand and be able to apply about scheduling techniques in project management.

Books:

1. Title                   : Operations Management 1st Ed.

Author                  :  Roaimah Omar

Publisher             : Pearson – Prentice Hall Malaysia , 2005

2. Title                  : Operations Management 1st Ed.

Author                  : Kostas N. Dervitsiotis

Publisher             : Prentice Hall , 1981

3. Title                   : Operations Management 4th Ed.

Author                  : Heizer & Render

Publisher             : Prentice Hall, 2005

Assignments and Exams:

For assignment, there will be no presentation yet it will be a pre-quiz every week before the materials begin. The students should be prepared with the materials that will be given that day and or the materials that already given last meeting. It will help student to understand every concepts for production and operations management.

Another assignment will be an exercise that will be given every three weeks that will be given 20 minutes before the class ended. The assignments will be in study cases. No make-up assignment!

For the exams, the final exam will be followed like the coordinator already set. But for the mid-term exam, it will be cases that would be taken from the real problems in company. The length of time is 120 minutes and no curving/cheating! Any students who break this rule will get “E” immediately. The same rule will be applied to the final exam.

The most important thing that should be remembered is there is no replacement exam! And no plagiarism! If student do any plagiarism, he/she will get “E” immediately.

Attendance:

About the attendance, the student will follow the school’s rule where the student only allow to skip/permission/ sick for 3 days (about the exceptional, its already set in school rules and will follow it too).

Policy Issues:

  • No cell-phone and or similar devices activities during the class otherwise the student’s point (overall points) will be reduced 5 points for once activity.
  • No MP3’s player and or similar devices otherwise the student’s point (overall points) will be reduced 10 points for once activity.
  • No discrimination behaviors in class.
  • Any policy issues that are not mentioned at here will be mentioned later on in the class.

Grading:

Attendance                        10%

Assignments                      20%

Mid-Term Exam                30%

Final Exam                           40%

Total                                      100%

For the grading, it will follow what the school’s policy already mentioned.

Schedule for Production and Operations Management Class

Meeting Subject Length Time Media
1 Introduction of Production and Operations Management 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White board
2 Facility Location 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White board
3 Facility Layout 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White board
4 Product Design 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White board
5 Operations Planning 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White board
6 Mid- Term Exam 120 minutes Question and answer’s sheet

7 Inventory Management 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White Board
8 Project Management 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White Board
9 Work Measurement 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White Board
10 Quality Control 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White Board
11 Maintenance 120 minutes LCD Projector (Presentation)

White Board
12 Final Exam 120 minutes Question and answer’s sheet
03
May
10

Risk Management Module – International Class Syllabus

Meeting

Subject Material/ Topic

Study Activities

Time (Minutes)

Media

Study Method

Evaluation Technique

1 Theory and Concept of Risk Management This meeting is Introduction meeting where the students will get inform what are the rules in the class during this term. Then the lecturer will enter the subject about theory and concept of Risk Management.

The students should be able to describe what is risk management, the history of risk management, the essential of risk management, and basic concept and theory of risk management.

120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
2 Risk Measurement Students will be able how to measure risk with some of tools such as standard deviation, IQR, covariance to calculate simple risk and will help them to make a decision making as a top management. They will have some cases and simulation how to measure some risks. 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
3 Risk Management Techniques and Internal Control Hedging, Portfolio, Insurance preview, Internal Control, COSO, Internal Audit, Fraud, dan Corruption 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
4 Risk Monitoring and Reporting Risk Monitoring, Risk Budgeting, Financial Reporting 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
5 Enterprise Risk Management and Firm Value ; Insurance, Reinsurance, Captives and Self Insurance ERM, Casualty Actuarial Framework, COSO Framework, ERM Implementation, Firm Value, Asymmetric information, Moral Hazard, Adverse Selection, Insurance,Re-Insurance, Captive Insurance Companies, Special Purpose Companies, segregated Portfolio Companies, and Self-Insurance 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
6 Risk Transfer – Derivatives Hedging, Futures, Forwards, Swap, Option, Strategic in  Option, and Securitization 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
7 Mid – Term Exam
8 Business and Market Risk Business Risk, Legal Risk, Contingency Risk,  Equity Risk, Interest Risk, Currency Risk, Commodity Risk, Introduction of VAR 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
9 Operational Risk Operational Risk, Basel Accord, and Basel Accord II 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
10 Credit Risk Credit Risk, Consumer Banking, Consumer Credit Risk, Counterparty risk, Sovereign Risk 120 -LCD & Projector

-Handouts

-White board

-Text Book

-Presentation

-Q&A session

-Homework

-Exercise

-Case study

Oral and Written
11 Presentation
12 Final Term Exam

References:

1. http://valuevolution.wordpress.com

2. Jorion, 2006

3. Walsh C., Key Management Ratios, 3rd ed., 2002, Prentice Hall – UK, Glasgow.

4. Cuthbertson K., Nitzscche D., Financial Engineering: Derivatives and Risk Management, 2001, John Wilwy&Sons Ltd. – England.

22
Apr
10

Manajemen Resiko – Handouts

Buat semua mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah manajemen resiko, disini saya kaitkan 3 pertemuan yang pertama. Silakan dikopi atau dicetak sesuai kebutuhan kamu masing-masing.

Good luck for everything! ^_^

Link nya sebagai berikut:

Pertemuan 1

Pertemuan 2

Pertemuan 3




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